Mathematics Documentation in Latex

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Writing mathematics in Latex seems to be a bit difficult at first. However, here I compiled a short summary on how you can write good mathematical expressions easily with examples.

I am assuming, you already know some basics how to write basic equations. Here, I show you how you can present and document it in well manner.

If you are new to Latex, this post might be helpful for you. Check Latex Resources in a Nutshell.


Within Paragraph/Texts

  1. Use $$ for mathematical expressions inside text. For example, $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$ will look like $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$.

  2. You can also use parenthesis for equations inside text. For example, \(x^2 + y^2 = z^2\) will look like $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$ in the output document.

Outside Paragraph/Texts

  1. Use \begin{equation}...\end{equation} to write equations. Put your mathematical symbols within this environment and it will add an equation number as well.
    % With equation number
     x^2 + y^2 = z^2 

    To avoid equation number, use \begin{equation*}...\end{equation*}

    % Without equation number
     x^2 + y^2 = z^2 
  2. Aligning equations is one of my favorite option and it can be done using \begin{align*}...\end{align*}. We actually use it to align several equations.
     x^2 + y^2 &= z^2 \\
     x^3 + y^3 &= z^3

    Here, & helps to keep the equations aligned. Use \\ for newline. Or, you can use \begin{multline*}...\end{multline*}.

    f(x) = (a^2 + b^2 + c^2 + d^2 + e^2 + f^2)\\ 
    -(g^2 + h^2 + i^2 + j^2)
  3. You can also simply use \[...\] and put mathematical expressions within this.
     x^2 + y^2 = z^2

Mathematics Symbols in Latex

You can find all necessary Latex commands in the following link-

As this is a public document, I embed here for your convenience.

Example Equations

Please check this Overleaf Document to find real different examples related to general equations, matrix, and calculus.

  1. UnicodeMath: A Nearly Plain-Text Encoding of Mathematics
  2. LaTeX Math in MicroSoft Office

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