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Attackers can perform active or passive reconnaissance once they compromise an asset within an internal network. Active reconnaissance (active scanning) provides better accuracy while performing reconnaissance although with a higher chance of being exposed to the Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS).

Therefore, most of the times, the attacker chooses to perform passive reconnaissance and passive OS fingerprinting is one of the most popular techniques. This is how an attacker can understand the underlying operating system of other network nodes that eventually may lead to vulnerability exposure.

In this post, we will see how to fingerprint OS using a passive fingerprinting tool named p0f.

First, we need a PCAP file. A PCAP file usually includes a lot of network traffics. You can obtain a lot of PCAP files online. For example,

or you can capture network traffics yourself using Wireshark Packet Analyzer tool.


You might be able to fingerprint OS using wireshark if captured http traffics. If not, you can do it manually using following steps:

  1. First install the command-line version of wireshark named as tshark
    • Ubuntu: sudo apt install -y tshark
    • macOS: brew install tshark you can find other options from their official page.
  2. Capture only the first packet of a flow, which can be filtered using the tcp.flags.syn eq 1 filter. Here, we will be capturing only TTL and Window Size. You can look for a few other features as well.
     $ tshark -r <pcap_filename> -Y "tcp.flags.syn eq 1" -T fields -e ip.src -e ip.ttl -e tcp.window_size > <output_filename_with_path>

    for example,

     $ tshark -r thursday-100M.pcap -Y "tcp.flags.syn eq 1" -T fields -e ip.src -e ip.ttl -e tcp.window_size > /Users/roy/github/github_mrx/python_learn_teach/traffic_analysis/my_packet_analysis/dataset/tshark-log-thursday-100M.txt

    See other options of tshark in the official man page.

  3. open the txt/output file and match with existing databases. I’m adding an example database I found online.
OS TTL Win Size
Linux (kernel 2.4 and 2.6) 64 5840
Windows XP 128 65535
Windows 7, Vista and Server 2008 128 8192
Cisco Router (IOS 12.4) 255 4128


Well, if you want to use a better tool which won’t cost you time for manual checking and incomplete information, you can use p0f which is my most favorite and recommended tool to use for fingerprinting.

It’s quite easy to do so with only a single command and you can find all necessary information about a source node.

You can install p0f using the following commands:

  • Ubuntu: sudo apt-get install -y p0f
  • macOS: brew install p0f

Now run the following command and you will find your output in the output file.

$ sudo p0f -r <pcap_filename> -o <output_filename_with_path>

For example,

$ sudo p0f -r thursday-100M.pcap -o /Users/mrx/fop-log-thursday-100M.txt

That’s it, have fun, cheers!

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